All of the questions below start at the Table of Contents
page of the US Holocaust Memorial Museum's education
outreach page. You can also navigate the site by clicking the links
in the header at the top of the page or by following the links at the bottom.
Answers in red have been paraphrased from the website of the US Holocaust Memorial Museum. The link above the answer contains the answer provided in red.
Nazi Rule: Hitler Comes to Power
1) What was the name of the weak government of Germany created after World War I?
2) To which levels or members of German society did the Nazi Party of Adolph Hitler appeal?
The Nazis appealed especially to the unemployed, young people, and members of the lower middle class (small store owners, office employees, craftsmen, and farmers).
3) The USHMM website states that tens of thousands of
young, unemployed German men
Nazi Storm Troopers or (Sturmabteilungen) also called the SA.
4) What did these "auxiliary policemen" do to those who opposed the Nazi regime?
These auxiliary policemen took to
the streets to beat up and kill some opponents of the Nazi
5) What was the name of the Protective Squad that began
as a special guard for Adolph Hitler and other party leaders? Describe
their role in the affairs of the Nazi Party.
6) What was Hitler's term for the "master race?" Describe this type of person.
To describe the "Germanic race,"
Hitler used the term "Aryan" or "master race." For
7) Other than Jews, what types of German citizens were victims of Nazi racial ideology?
Among the targets of Nazi ideology
were Roma (Gypsies), an ethnic minority numbering about 30,000 in
8) Define anti-Semitism. How far does it go back?
What does the term pogrom mean?
Anti-semitism is any prejudice toward Jews or discrimination against them.
In Russia and Poland in the late
1800s the government organized or did not prevent
Jews were blamed for causing the
"Black Death," the plague that killed thousands of people throughout
9) How many Jews lived in Germany at the time of the 1933
census? How many of these
According to the census of June
1933, the Jewish population of Germany consisted of about 600,000 people.
10) How did the Nuremberg Laws of 1935 classify people
in Germany as Jewish (by what
The Nuremberg Laws stated that anyone
who had three or four Jewish grandparents was defined
11) How did the Nazi government identify Jews within the society of Germans in general?
Like everyone in Germany, Jews were
required to carry identity cards, but
See this artifact for a visual of the answer above:
Artifact about the Jews in Germany: http://www.ushmm.org/outreach/90256-1.htm
12) View the artifact found by way of the link above. Describe the artifact. What does it say?
Signs excluding Jews, such as the
sign shown here, were posted in public places (including
13) How did the Storm Troopers carry out the boycott of
Jewish businesses on April 1, 1933.
On the day of the boycott, Storm
Troopers stood menacingly in front of Jewish-owned shops.
It marked the beginning of
a nationwide campaign by theNazi party against the entire German
14) Which European nation was treated the harshest under
German rule? Give two examples
German rule in Poland was extremely
harsh. German authorities regarded the Polish
In occupied western Europe, far
milder policies were followed. "Germanic" countries like the
15) Tell what happened on the night of November 9, 1938.
What is the German name for
On the night of November 9, 1938,
violence against Jews broke out across the Reich, set off by Germans'
16) Who called the Evian Conference? When was it called
and for what purpose did it
President Franklin D. Roosevelt,
responding to mounting political pressure in the summer of 1938, called
for an international
17) List one reason why efforts to allow more refugees
into the US failed before World
Widespread racial prejudices among
Americans -- including antisemitic attitudes held by the U.S. State
18) Looking at the map, which country accepted the most
Jews during this period?
The United States accepted 90,000.
60,000 went to Palestine. 15,000-18,000 went to Shanghai,
19) What was the goal of the "final solution?" What is
the definition of the term
Genocide of the Jews was the main
goal of Nazi policy under the rule of Adolf Hitler.
20) Describe the two major stages of the Nazi plan to
carry out the "final solution."
After the June 1933 Nazi party rise
to power, state-enforced racism resulted in anti-Jewish legislation,
21) What were the einsatzgruppen? What methods
did they use most often to carry out
During the German invasion of the
Soviet Union in 1941, mobile killing squads (Einsatzgruppen)
22) In what city was the largest of the Jewish "residential
quarters" found? How many
The largest ghetto was in Warsaw, the Polish capital, where almost half a million Jews were confined.
Altogether, the Germans created
more than 400 ghettos in occupied territories.
23) Describe the events of April 19, 1943 in the Warsaw
Ghetto. How did the uprising
On April 19, 1943, the Warsaw ghetto
uprising began after German troops and police entered
24) What was the purpose of the Wannsee Conference?
Reinhard Heydrich, who was SS chief
Heinrich Himmler's head deputy, held the meeting for the
25) How many people died at Auschwitz? What percentage of them were Jewish?
More than one million people lost their lives at Auschwitz, nine out of ten of them Jewish.
26) What was the goal of some of the medical experiments
carried out by SS doctor Josef
The aim of some experiments was
to find better medical treatments for German soldiers and airmen.
27) What was the most common methods that Nazis committed
mass murder at the killing centers?
28) Use the map to list the major killing centers and extermination camps in Poland
Belzec, Chelmno, Sobibor, Treblinka,
as well as killing sections of Auschwitz-Birkenau and Majdanek-
29) For each of the Allied army groups below, identify
which killing center(s) was liberated
Soviet Forces: Majdanek camp in
Poland. On January 27, 1945, they entered Auschwitz
30) Why did about half of the concentration camp inmates
die within a few weeks of
Allied troops, physicians, and relief
workers tried to provide nourishment for the
31) What led Great Britain to change its mind about establishing
a Jewish homeland in its
Great Britain's scandalous treatment
of Jewish refugees added to international
32) What nation was formed from the division of Jewish
and Arab territory in Palestine?
33) How many Nazi leaders were put on trial in Nuremberg?
How many were sentenced
Twenty-two major Nazi criminals
went on trial. Twelve prominent Nazis were
35) Who found Adolph Eichmann? What was he convicted of
and what was his sentence?