Vocabulary terms and definitions
These are student definitions. Use with caution.
1) Limited Government: system in which government actions are limited to help ensure individual liberties and equality under the law representative government- government where the reps are elected or have received their position by inheritance and make laws
2) individual liberty- principal of personal freedom
3) rule by law- system in which the law
applies to government officials as much as to ordinary citizens and public
officials must make decisions based on the law not on personal opinions
4. Petition of Right: demand by Parliament in 1628 that King Charles agree to further limitations on the monarchy such as the king could not put citizens in jail without a legal reason and impose taxes without the approval of the House of Commons
5. The English Bill of Rights: document
in which Queen Mary II and King William III recognized certain basic rights
Such as, the right of British subjects to petition the monarch to
answer their grievances and the right of British subjects to be protected
from excessive bail and from cruel and unusual punishment.
7)Common Law- a body of law base on custom tradition, and post judicial decisions rather than on specific laws and statutes.
10. charter- a legal document issued by the monarch to trading companies or to a group of settlers.
11. proprietors- an individual to whom a colony and a charter were granted and authority to organize the colony.
45. The Federalists-a series of
85 essays written by Hamilton,Madison,and John Jay defending the Constitution.
It was used to persuade New Yorkers to ratify the Constitution
13. Burgesses - legislative representatives
41. The three fifths comprise - Three- fifths of the slave population would be counted in determining representation, but they also were to be counted in direct taxes.
42. Slavery and the Constitution - The three provisions
were: 1. the slave trade was not to be prohibited for twenty years 2. congress
could not compose duties on exports 3. treaties must be approved by two
thirds of the Senate.
14. Mayflower Compact- The agreement in which New England settlers established their own government in 1620. The signers agreed to live under a government that would make "just and equal laws... for the good of the colony."
15. The Fundamental Order of Connecticut- the first written constitution in America which formed a colony from Connecticut's early towns. This document called for "an orderly and decent government" and made the freedom of the towns the colony's highest authority.
39. New Jersey Plan- A proposal of government designed by William Patterson which favored an unicameral legislature and a plural executive branch.
40. The Great Compromise- A plan providing for a bicameral legislature in which the people would be represented in the House of Representatives and the states in the senate.
16) Salutary Neglect- Britain's "hands-off" policy toward the American colonies' internal affairs in order to increase the colonies' productivity and value.
17) Albany Plan of Union- Ben Franklin's plan in 1754 to unite the colonies
under a confederation to levy taxes, regulate Indian affairs, and establish
an army and navy. This was a result to the French rg
18) Stamp Act- Occurred in 1765, this law placed a tax on all papered material, including newspapers, merchants bills, legal documents, and even playing cards and calendars, it required to have an official mark on all printed materials.
44.Anti-Federalists - group of people who opposed the new federal System
of government; led by Patrick Henry, Samuel Adams, and John Hancock.
21) Boston Tea Party- in December of 1773 60 colonists
disguised themselves as Indians and boarded the three East India Ships
dumping 300 crates of tea into the Boston Harbor.
22. Intolerable Acts: colonist terms for a set of four British acts. One was the closing of the Port of Boston, the other was a limitation on the self-government of Mass. (Until Tea was paid for).
23. First Continental Congress. First gathering of state delegates who discussed allegiance to Britain. They drew up the "Declaration of Rights" saying that colonists should be treated like people in Britain, and that Parliament violated such rights. Included George Washington, John Adams, Samuel Adams. and more...
24) Lexington and Concord- On the date in April 1775, British soldiers were sent to Massachusetts.. Their mission was to destroy the colonist's supply of weapons and to arrest John Hancock and Samuel Adams for treason. "The colonial militia resisted, and marked the start of the American Revolution.
25) Second Continental Congress- This congress met in
Philadelphia three weeks after the battle of Lexington and Concord. John
Hancock was elected the President of the Continental Congress. The decisions
and policies were carried out by executive committees. "The congress was
forced to take on the powers of a government and organize the colony's
28. The first part of the Declaration of Independence is the preamble which is an explanation of why it was being written and the basic principles on which is was based. The middle part of the Declaration consists of a detailed list of grievances against King George the III. These were intended to show exactly how the British government had violated basic rights that the colonists, as British subjects, possessed. The final part of the Declaration explains the colonists' efforts to achieve a peaceful settlement, the British government stubbornness, and the Americans resolve to be free.
29) Bicameral- the legislatures with only 2 houses
30) Unicameral- Georgia and Pennsylvania only have 1 house
31) Bill Of Rights- seven states included a bill of rights in their constitution which listed the basic civil liberties of citizens
32. Ratification- the final approval of a plan
33. Confederation- states joined together to meet
a certain common goal
34) Treaty of Paris of 1783- ended the American Revolution
35) Northwest Ordinance- outlined a government structure for the Northwest territory
36) Annapolis Convention- a meeting to revise the Articles of Confederation only 5 people attended
37.Quorum- minimum number of people needed
to conduct business.
38.Virginia Plan- a plan that involved 3 separate
branches of government, legislative, executive, judicial. Also with a
bicameral legislature and national legislature would have authority to cancel
conflicting state laws and make the states comply with national laws. (favors