America In the Early 19th Century

The Texas Revolution

Table of Contents
Vocabulary Terms and Identifications
Important Maps
Biographies of Key Historical Figures


Overview:    Stephen Austin is known as the "Father of Texas."  He settled Texas after Mexico got its independence from Spain in 1821.  Then Antonio Santa Anna took power of Mexico.  As a result, Texas revolted in 1835, this became known as the Texas Revolution. Santa Anna attacked an abandoned mission called the Alamo with 5,000 troops.  All of the 200 Texans that fought died.  Among these were Davey Crockett, Jim Bowie, and William Travis.

That was not the only war that Texas was in.  Texas was also involved in The Mexican-American  War, which lasted from 1846 until 1848.  The Mexican War was caused by fears for the safety of Texas, and rumors of Mexico transferring California to Great Britain, and American sensitivity toward Mexico's threats.  That moved Americans closer to a war spirit.  Mexico then recalled its minister in Washington and broke off diplomatic relations.  In response to that, U.S. troops entered Texas to protect the area until annexation was completed.  As a result Mexico dispatched an army to the south bank of the Rio Grande.  President Polk wanted to prevent war so he sent John Slidell, a missionary, to Mexico's capital.  Slidell had instructions to negotiate a settlement of the claims and Texas issues and to also offer to buy New Mexico and California.  Slidell arrived to a wave of anti-American feeling and the Mexican government refused to receive him.  The Mexican president, whom people said favored conciliation with the United States, was pulled out of office.  He was replaced by an officer, who announced his intention to restore Texas to Mexico.  Taylor's army was ordered to the Rio Grande in December of 1845.  The opposing Mexican force received orders to attack the Americans.  Then an American patrol was ambushed north of the Rio Grande, soon after followed by Mexican forces.  Then they fought in the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma in May 1846.  The American won both.  A war resolution was passed on May 13, 1846.  The USA also won the battle of Buena Vista on February 22-23, 1847.  The war continued on like this until the Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo ended the war in 1848.  That is only the beginning of the history of Texas an independent republic and then a state in the Union.

Vocabulary and Identifications

1) Texas Revolution- In 1835, When Texas established its own government.

2) Lone Star Republic- The name given to Texas after the Texas Revolution.

3) The Alamo- A fort where the Lone Star flag flies over in memory of those who fought for the independence of Texas.

4) Stephen Austin- "The Father of Texas" who led Texas to their independence.

5) Santa Anna- An army officer that once took over Mexico's government and sent troops to Texas

Important Maps

Map of Mexican War

Map of the Mexican War

Biographies of Important People

           Stephen Austin

      Stephen F. Austin was known as the Father of Texas. He established the first American settlement in 1822on Texas 's Gulf Coast.  Austin was largely responsible for a law that allowed slaves to be brought into Texas.  He served as a member of the Coahulia and Texas legislature.  Stephen Austin supported Santa Anna in the effort to overturn the central government.  At his time of death he had accepted Texas's appointment as secretary of state.

Sam Houston

Samuel Houston 

     Samuel Houston traveled to Texas in 1832.  He negotiated with Texas Indians on behalf of the Cherokee and the United States.  Houston was commander of a provisional governmental army.  He was also at Washington-on the-Brazos when independence was declared on March 2, 1836.  Then on April 21, 1836 Houston's men secured Texas' independence, they destroyed a Mexican army and captured it's commander, Santa Anna.  He was elected into nonconsecutive presidential terms 1836-1838, 1841-1844.  During that time he reduced governmental expenditures, and he stopped warfare on Indians.


1. In what year was the Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo put into effect?
    A. 1845
    B. 1890
     C. 1830
     D. 1848

2. Who is known as the "Father of Texas?"
    A. Stephen Austin
     B. Sam Houston
    C. Andrew Jackson
    D. John Tyler

3. The Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo ended what war?
    A. War of 1812
    B. The Cold War
    C. Mexican War
    D. Civil War

4. In what year did Texas declare its independence?
    A. 1818
    B. 1845
    C. 1830
    D. 1836

5. What did Texas used to be called?
    A. Cattle Republic
    B. Texas Republic
    C. Lone Star Republic
    D. Cowboy Republic

6. Texas was annexed as a state in the USA in....
    A. 1791
    B. 1836
    C. 1845
    D. 1863

7. Stephen Austin lived from 1793 until ______
    A. 1840
    B. 1836
    C. 1800
    D. 1821

8. The Mexican War was fought mainly for what reason?
    A. They were fighting for Texas
    B. USA wanted to take over the world
    C. Mexico owned too much cheese
    D. They wanted to see who was better

9. In 1845, ______ was president of the USA
    A. James Monroe
    B. James Buchanan
    C. James Polk
    D. Benjamin Harrison

10. On April 21, 1836, Sam Houston led his Texas troops and defeated Mexico at the battle of San ____
    A. Juan
    B. Diego
    C. Jacinto
    D. Jose


1. 1848
2. Stephen Austin
3. Mexican War
4. 1845
5. Lone Star Republic
6. 1845
7. 1836
8. They were fighting for Texas
9. James Polk
10. Jacinto



Kennamer, Lorrin. Ryan, Robert.  The New Book of Knowledge Deluxe Library Edition, pg. 181 T. 1997

Patrick Williams, "Texas Revolution and Annexation," Available: WWW ,2000

The Concise Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia Copyright © 1994. Columbia University Press
Available: WWW,2000

Robert W. Johannsen, "Stephen F. Austin," Available: WWW ,2000

Cassutto, George. Unpublished  notes. 2000

Student authors:
Tom O. and Michelle C.

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